Nepali Natya Siromani Balkrishna Sama
Bal Krishna Samser janga bahadur Rana was born in 1902 as the second son to General Samer Shumshere Jung Bahadur Rana and Kirti Rajya Laxmi in Gyaneshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal. He was born in Rana family (equivalent to Royal family) of that time so he was able to pursue the best education available in the country. Bal Krishna Sama He completed his high school from Bhanu School (Durbar High School) in Rani Pokhari and went to Tri Chandra college as a science student. Balkrishna Samser Janga bahadur Rana by birth had right to become military officer went to Dehradoon (India) training and became a Lieutenant Colonel. Then prime minister Chandra Shumshere did not find Sama's interest in writing positively. Sama was not happy about the Rana rules and the regime.
He got married to Mandakini in 1921. Balkrishna was distracted by cruelty of his grandfather to the servants and worker. His father was engaged in luxurious all the time. Sama had struggled finding time for him in peace. He selected learning art and literature to spend his time far from those violence and inhuman behaviors. He started publishing his articles in good magazines like Sarada, Udhyog, Shahitya Shrot and others. He took out all the honorary names out of his long name and made it short as “Balkrihna Sama”. He did not want to associated himself with Rana autocracy in Nepal. The drama "Bhater" published in Pragati in 1953 represents his feelings and concerned on human rights and freedom. Bal Krishna Sama is known “Natya Siromani”. He was known to be "Shakespeare" of the era in Nepal. He was much more inspired by Shakespeare's works.
His dramas such as "Prem Pinda", "Buhartan", "Tapobhumi", "Atyadhunikta", and "Bhater" present the social context of the Rana era. "Mukunda Indira" and "Mutuko Byatha" show the emotional and romantic side of Sama's personality. Mukunda Indira is story of all Nepali people still in 21st century. "Amit Basana", "Boksi", "Talamathi", and "Andhabeg" are based on the human psychology. And his dramas on historical personalities are "Amar Singh", "Bhimsen Ko Antya", and "Bhakta Bhanubhakta". "Birami Ra Kuruwa" deals with philosophy while "Prahlad" and "Dhruba" are based on religious figures. Sama's contribution to Nepali literature and drama is things to be proud of. Sama wrote stories, poems, essays, compositions, and biographies.
His contemporaries Laxmi Prasad Devkota and Lekhnath Poudyal were involved in writing poetry. "Aago Ra Paani" and "Chiso Chulho" are his popular epics, he wrote an essay on Nepalese art entitled "Nepal Lalit Kala" as well as a biography Hamra Rastriya Bhibhutiharu and an autobiography Mero Kabita Ko Aradhana, Part I and II. "Kaikai" is his most well-known short story collection which was published in 1938. Sama had very important role in changing the name "Gorkha Bhasa Prakashini Samiti" to "Nepali Bhasa Prakashini Samiti". He felt "Gorkha" did not truly represent the people of Nepal. His wants all to become Nepali. He also became the chairman of the Samiti for several years and worked as a lecturer of Nepali language and literature in Tri Chandra College. In 1955, he became director of Radio Nepal and chief editor of Gorkhapatra. In 1967, when the Royal Nepal Academy was established, he became a member and later on the vice chancellor of the academy.
Sama continued writing and published though his life several poems in magagines like Madhuparka, Ramjham and others. He had many unpublished works which he read out in literary programs. Among his unpublished dramas are "Gangalal", "Aja", "Milinad", "Prem", "Chinta", "Prandaan". Sama was awarded with the Tribhuwan Puraskar from Nepal Rajakiya Pragya Prathistan in 1972. The same year he received the Bishesh Upadhi from Tribhuvan University and in 1978, the Prithvi Pragya Puraskar from Pragya Pratisthan. He died in 1981. He physically left the world, but his works are still alive. His contribution to Nepali Sahitya(literature) is invincible.
Balkrishna Sama’s works:
Drama: Mutuko Byatha, Dhruba, Mukunda Indira,
Pralahad, Andhabeg, Bhakta Bhanubhakta, Ma, Prem Pinda, Amar Singh,
Talamathi, Amitbasana, Tansenko Jhari, Swasni Manchhe, U Mareko Chaina.
According to writer and critic Ghataraj Bhattarai,
there are also some of his unpublished plays. They are: Milnanda,
Amlekh, Prandan, Kohi Dan Dina Nasakos, Chinta, Swami Maharaj, Ekdev
Vaidya, Rajendra Laxmi and Harittara.
Epics: Ago Ra Pani and Chiso Chulo
Stories: Paraighar, Deurali, Taltal, Khukuri,
Harisiddi, Sarajya, Kaikayi, Phukeko Bandhan, Tangan Ko Ghoda, Rupko
Mulya, Youban Ra Sundarata and Nauli.
Essay: Atma Biswas, Tyo Pani and Bardahama Shikar.
(Source:-Various Book and internet sites)